How to decipher the analyses of PSA in the blood in men (norm violations)?
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) in men is a polypeptide and a kind of token, using which in medicine is the diagnosis and monitoring of prostate cancer. In addition, the test for total PSA is also involved in the diagnosis of BPH. Especially important violations and deviations from the established framework. The level of this protein in men is determined by blood tests.
Recommended for analysis?
The scientists who developed this test was originally hoped that this analysis will be used for the diagnosis of prostate cancer, on the basis of complaints of patients. But since the increased index of PSA in blood serum for men does not always mean prostate cancer, the results of this study also take the doctor to diagnose BPH. With age the normal PSA increases, so urologists recommend to take the test for total and free prostate specific antigen for such categories of men:
- Patients diagnosed with cancer to monitor the effectiveness of treatment.
- Men with suspected malignant tumor of the prostate.
- Patients last radiation treatment of malignant neoplasm (it is recommended to do a test for total and free antigen every 3-4 months).
- Men over 40 years for preventive examination for cancer detection or adenoma of the prostate gland.
In addition, to establish a correct diagnosis of the doctors not only use the value of this protein in proportion as men age, but and take into account other parameters and the deviation from the norm. For example, studying the analysis take into account the speed of increase of prostate specific antigen and the ratio of free and bound antigen. PSA is in the serum in free and bound form. Most often in laboratory diagnosis define two forms (free and associated with α-1-antichymotrypsin), and this ratio is called the common prostate specific antigen.
As I read the results, the doctors
High levels of this protein, which defined the test cause the doctor to suspect a patient has prostate cancer or other disorders. The rate of PSA in men in the blood serum is 4 ng/ml, but more reliable data include recording the upper bounds of the polypeptide according to age range. In men aged 40 to 49 years, the normal tumor marker in the serum and 2.5 ng/ml. between 50 and 59 years, the norm is the concentration of 3,5 ng/ml, in 60-69 ‒ index rules will be 4.5 ng/ml. And in older men 70 years andolder normal PSA is 6.5 ng/ml. Pathology are considered any deviations from these limits.
At the same time, the coefficient value of the test of PSA up to 10 ng/mg is unlikely to be a significant basis for diagnosis and referral of the patient for a biopsy of the prostate. Here the doctor will rely on other methods of examination, and only then make a decision. Also has value as a free PSA level refers to the total. The norm of relations of the free polypeptide to the total is considered to be 15%, not higher.
Transcript of the density of this protein also has important value in diagnosis. This figure often serves as a basis for biopsy of the prostate. For this manipulation is valuable indicators stand as the density of the protein, and the conversion rate of the DOG, and especially a deviation from the norm. In addition, the test for determining the protein is a reliable sign of distant metastases.
Why the need for preparation for assay
A PSA test displays valid data, but some factors could affect its accuracy, affect the accuracy and even deviations from the norm.
Because before you can donate blood for analysis should be prepared. Honestly you need to tell your doctor about prescription drugs. Many medications can change the value of the DOG, and depends on the correct interpretation. If the analysis shows false results, in turn, and the diagnosis is wrong.
It is necessary to consider that affect the accuracy of the factor analysis and to distort the test can and other factors, and therefore should adhere to certain rules:
- 8 hours before the study not to eat food, juices, coffee, alcohol and tea.
- To refrain from sexual contact for at least 48 hours, and ideally this period should be 5-7 days (sexual intercourse prior to the examination will increase the content of PSA in the male body).
- If a patient takes a course of prostate massage, you should not donate blood for analysis, and wait at least 3 days.
- The same applies to rectal examination. Physical effect on the gland is able to change the indicator of the level of prostate-specific antigen, and the test can show a violation or deviation.
Failure to comply with these rules can distort the analysis, which will indicate a deviation, and the doctor in turn will determine the violation in the work of organs of the urogenital area and prescribe the wrong treatment. Do not prematurely worry if the analysis of free and total tumor marker showed a violation or deviation from the norm. On the concentration level of the marker can influence such pathological processes as inflammation of the prostate gland, prostate adenoma, as well as manyother factors. Only a qualified specialist is able to accurately decipher the PSA to compare it with results of other studies and only after that to name the correct diagnosis and appoint adequate treatment.