That affect DNA fragmentation of sperm and how to improve it?
Fragmentation of sperm DNA is a lesion of the chains of deoxyribonucleic acid male germ cells. On DNA fragmentation are judged on the quality of gametes and the male fertility.
The number of damaged chains directly depends on the level of integrity of genetic material and the likelihood of conception.
What caused the emergence of pathology
DNA fragmentation may be due to several reasons. All the causes can be divided into external and internal.
External causes are expressed in such factors as:
- The presence of varicose veins of the spermatic cord and testicles (varicocele). The characteristic may be the rise in temperature in the testes caused by this disease.
- Migrated the procedure is radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
- Inflammation of the urinary system.
- Oxidative stress.
- The presence of harmful habits.
The internal reasons include:
- Defective maturation of sperm. In the epididymis of the testicles Mature male germ cells. The result of this process leads to condensation of chromatin of the cell nucleus, and provokes sperm motility. If the process does not flow properly, the DNA of cells damaged.
- Ineffective culling. The production of sperm occurs in the testes. If male sex cells are produced by abnormalities in the DNA chains, as a rule, the body itself removes them. If the rejection system is faltering, then appear in the ejaculate sperm with damaged genetic code.
To identify different processes peculiar to the pathology of sperm, as a rule, use the analysis of semen. It displays all the characteristics of sperm physiological plan: its volume, viscosity, pH, duration of liquefaction. Also, this method determines the qualitative characteristics of the ejaculate: structure, concentration of sperm, motility. However, semen analysis cannot show the degree of DNA fragmentation.
The most popular way to determine the extent of damage is the TUNEL analysis. This test is carried out using a microscope after adding the sperm of special reagents. At the same time count healthy sperm and sperm with impaired DNA. Decryption becomes possible due to the fact that during the test, germ cells interact with the enzyme: a substance penetrates into the sperm with DNA fragmentation and stain them.
When the analysis is finished, the patient will give results with information of the percentage of healthy anddamaged germ cells, and their photo. The threshold standards, which shows TUNEL test, is less than 15%.
To detect fragmentation of sperm can also be tested SCSA test or SCD. They, like most of the other analyses measure the potential damage, therefore, their ability to do forecast lower, while TUNEL test can make a prediction, by measuring actual damages.
Analysis on the fragmentation of the sperm has its own rules of training. Within five days before the test the patient should avoid alcohol, sauna and steam baths, to refrain from hot baths and sexual intercourse. When the time comes to analyze the patient through Masturbation would collect the sperm in a special container.
Fragmentation test of the sperm may be indicated in the following conditions:
- the man observed infertility idiopathic nature;
- the pair has repeatedly attempted to get pregnant by IO, and they all failed;
- it was revealed unacceptably low quality of the embryo;
- the patient has reached 45 years of age;
- performed freezing sperm; in this case, the analysis will determine the suitability of the sample and the percentage of DNA fragmentation;
- in the spermatic cord detected varicose veins.
The analysis also shows the partners of patients who have repeatedly had miscarriages. In addition, the test can be performed, if a man for the past three months, there is increased body temperature.
How to improve
Sometimes the female egg is able to eliminate the DNA fragmentation of sperm, which she inseminated. This ability depends on the age of the woman, quality of her eggs, number of damaged spermatozoa and the type of damage.
Studies have shown that intake of antioxidants can significantly reduce the degree of fragmentation of the genetic code. However therapy has some exceptions. Method will not be effective for men who have DNA fragmentation was caused by thermal injury or prolonged exposure to toxic substances.