The main functions of male sex hormones and their importance for the body
Male sex hormones or androgens are the biologically active substances contained in the body of both men and women. They are responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics, normal functioning of many organs and systems, and in representatives of a strong half of mankind are responsible for spermatogenesis. Glands produce male and female sex hormones, but their influence is small.
What is the male reproductive system
Its structure is quite simple. Reproductive system in men consists of external organs (penis, scrotum) and internal (testes, prostate, seminal vesicles, VAS deferens).
The structure of the penis is characterized by spongy and cavernous bodies. its functions include participation in the sexual act, delivery of sperm to the vagina, excretion of urine from the bladder. The scrotum is a skin-muscle sack, the structure of which is perfect for testicles, their appendages, spermatic cord.
If we consider the structure of the testicles, they are an important part Leydig cells. These cells produce testosterone. Prostate and seminal vesicles produce a secret, diluting the sperm. They are distinguished by a glandular structure.
The phenomenon of synthesis
In the male body the androgens produced by Leydig cells located in the testes, testicles and other sex glands. Regulates their education of the hypothalamic-pituitary system with the help of follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormones.
Depending on the glands, which produce male hormones, they are either testicular or napochechnikova.
Testicular androgens are:
- the Androsterone.
Adrenal androgens are:
- dehydroepiandrosteron sulfate.
What is the chemical nature of testosterone? This is the main hormone produced by the sex glands men, biochemistry which is characterized in that it is formed from cholesterol and acetic acid. It is transported to the organs-targets with proteins-carriers. Subsequently, it produces dihydrotestosterone and female sex hormones — estrogens in small amounts. Testosterone production is characterized by the fact that there are daily fluctuations of its level. The peak concentration is in the morning from 6.00 to 8.00. Large values are observed from 20.00 to 22.00.
In addition, a lack of testosterone during this period can cause Klinefelter syndrome, in which there is no hair on the pubic area and underarms, as well as reduced intelligence and reduced density of the testicles, there is orchitis (inflammation of testes),cryptorchidism (undescended testes into the scrotum).
The best known congenital disease associated with lack of androgen, is a syndrome of Reifenstein. It is characterized by resistance to hormones and the glands are not violated. This syndrome is genetically determined. Its speakers are female chromosomes. This syndrome has the following characteristic manifestations: expressed breast, curved, small penis size, abnormal location of the orifice of the urethra, scanty body hair. People with this syndrome, 30 years old different looks. Drugs to treat this condition the body does not use, so as to eliminate this syndrome is impossible. Surgically remove the curvature of the penis and increase its size, and the mammary glands removed. Thus, the syndrome Reifenstein incurable, but you can eliminate its main symptoms.
Selection of a suitable therapy
The lack of androgens affects the entire body and can lead to the development of a number of diseases. In this situation it is necessary to take drugs with substitution or incentive effect. Therapy is selected based on a man's age, medical history, presence of concomitant diseases.
Replacement therapy includes medications that contain exogenous testosterone, and plays a major role in the treatment of male androgen deficiency. These drugs are produced a huge number of companies and different methods of application. Using drugs with one kind of testosterone, these include: Testosterone kapronat, isocaproate, propionate, or complex esters – Omnadren 250. The only drawback of this treatment for the body is inhibition of synthesis of endogenous hormone. In addition, the biochemical processes that occur in response to these drugs, depressing affects the production of sperm.
Stimulating therapy enhances the formation of male sex glands of its own hormone. These drugs can be taken, provided that the function of the testicles is preserved. The stimulating treatment increases the production of sperm, what distinguishes it from substitution.
Thus, produced by the male sex glands androgens play an important role in the genital area of men and in the functioning of many organs and systems. The lack of them can lead to the development of various diseases, so early detection of hormonal imbalance helps to avoid serious complications.