Description of the reasons for the appearance of testicular tumors, symptoms and methods of treatment of the disease
Malignant tumor of male sex glands (testicles) is called testicular cancer. This disease is a fairly rare cancer problem in men. Tumor egg – aggressive pathological process affects in most cases the younger generation (forty years).
Causes of tumors in the testicles is unknown. A tumor of the testicle is characterized by a unilateral lesion, however, in 1-2% of cases still found bilateral cancer. May be affected by equally right and left testicle. Symptoms, detection, causes, and treatment tactics are identical.
There are two types of this disease:
- Germ cell can develop from the epithelial cells of the testicles. These include: teratoblastoma, seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, horionepitelioma.
- Negormonalny – grows out of the underlying tissues of testicles. These are: sertaline, ladygaga, sarcoma.
The most common cancer in the defeat of this body of men is seminoma. She slowly developing, for it is not characterized by such symptoms as necrosis and bleeding. Often these tumors metastasize to lymph nodes, bones, lungs. However, the treatment of this variety of tumor is the most efficient among the group of malignant pathologies of the localization.
Factors for cancer of the testicles
Causes of malignant tumors is quite diverse. However, significant causes to date there. There are three peak testicular tumor in men: children under 10 years, males 20-40 years old, elderly people over 60 years.
The child 90% of cancer cases are explained by the appearance of malignant cells in the embryonic benign teratoma. At an older age are other causes of this disease:
- the influence of radiation beams;
- traumatic injury of the testicles;
- endocrine disorders (infertility, gynecomastia, hypogonadism).
Sometimes the boy does not dare to tell parents that he's hurt his left or right testicle, because of shame. This leads to the neglect of the disease.
The risk of testicular cancer is increased in patients with Klinefelter syndrome (a genetic disease). Often a tumor of the testicle (whether right or left) occurs in men with cryptorchidism (gonads do not descend into the scrotum).
Genetic reasons play a crucial role in the study of the factors in the development of cancer. The risk of disease increases in the presence of at least one of the following reasons:
- testicular cancer with relatives 1st degree;
- surgery on the scrotum.
Manifestations and their meaning
The vast majority of patients the tumor grows, painless, and symptoms do not exist at all, why it is detected at later stages. Menobserved swelling of the testicles in the scrotum. The sensitivity of the affected gland is absent. However, in 10% of cases, patients experience pain, but due to the outpouring of blood into the interior of the tumor tissue. Symptoms of malignant tumor of the testis is similar to the clinic of orchitis and epididymitis.
Late stages of tumors are characterized by widespread metastases throughout the body. This corresponds to the symptoms such as pain in the back, abdomen, anorexia, gynecomastia (enlarged breast). Each stage of testicular tumors in men is associated with specific symptoms:
- Stage 1 – a single education, no metastasis;
- Stage 2 – a tumor with metastasis to neighboring groups of lymph nodes (inguinal, abdominal);
- Stage 3 – a tumor with metastasis in the group of distant lymph nodes and other organs: liver, lungs, brain, bones.
Diagnosis of cancer of the gonads starts with a visual examination by a doctor of the scrotum. If the patient no cryptorchidism (neomusaria), but symptoms such as swelling of one testicle and asymmetry of the scrotum, you should think about the availability of between the sheets the testicles of the liquid. These symptoms also indicate the presence of a tumor.
Further diagnosis is carried out by a puncture and subsequent palpation of the affected organ. It is also necessary to study the blood of a patient (laboratory diagnosis: tumor markers). These same methods are used as diagnostics of the body after treatment cancer.
Not less important is ultrasound. This method is used to determine the size, structure growths, the condition of the body. Ultrasound diagnosis is indispensable if the testicle does not hurt.
Also applied computer-aided diagnosis for detection of metastases. With the same purpose used x-ray diagnostics (excretory urography). However, the most reliable diagnostics using needle biopsy and conducting cytological studies.
How to treat pathology?
To treat a cancerous lesion in various ways. However, you should start with eliminating the cause of the disease. Treatment depends on the stage of tumor growth by the testes in men and the forms of destruction. The primary is surgical treatment. When bilateral lesions or cancer a single egg especially important carry out organ-sparing surgery. After excision of the tumor tissue in all patients radiotherapy treatment.
The most commonly used treatment by holding blindness (sometimes in combination with lymphadenectomy). Treatment Seminarytumors of 1-2 stages is supplemented by radiation therapy. Treatment of seminoma stages 3-4 and nezamenimogo lesions requires chemotherapy systemic action. When two-way organicwaste, insufficient amount of testosterone in the male body treatment gormonoterapii drugs.
Comprehensively chosen treatment cancerous lesions (surgery, radiation, chemotherapy) can act as causes a temporary or long-lasting infertility and impotence. To prevent these complications it is recommended to conduct the analyses to determine hormonal levels of LH, FSH, testosterone), semen. If you wish to guarantee the continuation of the species man can use the method of semen cryopreservation.
The treatment most effective with early detection of malignant lesions. If you have a swollen testicle, it is necessary to address to the urologist. Not least plays a self-examination: first ewupawly left testicle, then the right (or Vice versa). Normal left testicle is slightly lower than the right.
Features of pathology in children
Most often the tumor in the area of the testicles can occur in children of preschool age. Detection of pathology and its causes, usually occurs at birth or in the first year of life. Allocate the first symptoms of lesions of the testicle in a child, increase in size.
The most significant causes of testicular cancer in a child is:
- traumatic injuries;
- congenital malformations;
- dysfunction from the endocrine system.
Treatment of tumor in children is to remove the affected gland, which is sore or swollen, surgically and ligation of the spermatic cord. To stop the process of metastasis is applied to the irradiation of nearby lymph nodes. No other no special instructions. Left and right testicle the treatment does not differ.
Diagnosis of the disease in a specialized Department will allow time to identify and eliminate the symptoms of this disease. If you have a swollen testicle or one of the glands is sick, you will certainly need to see a specialist.