Characteristics of testicular cancer in men: causes, symptoms and treatment methods
Malignant gonadal damage in men is called "testicular cancer". Most frequently this pathology is observed in men of age group 15-40 years, however, there are cases of identification of tumors at any age.
Causes of cancer of the testicles have not been studied. Found lose on both the left and right testicle.
Why is the illness?
Reliable causes malignant process in the body that modern science is not known. However, there are possible causes that would, in the opinion of many specialists, the development of cancer.
- Most often as a cause of cancer of the testes cryptorchidism are considering. This anomaly is characterized by failure of the lowering process of the egg during fetal development or in the neonatal period. Even successfully carried out a corrective surgical treatment for cryptorchidism does not eliminate the risk of cancer pathology.
- As the cause can be family history men. If there were cases of cancer of the testicle closest relatives, the risk becomes greater.
- Anomalies development of genital glands in men: discrepancy of normal size and consistency testicles (testes) and other signs of congenital abnormalities.
- The impact on the area of the sexual glands of men the radiation beams.
- Infertility and its possible causes.
- Diseases of a genetic nature, involving in pathological process of the testicles (Klinefelter syndrome).
As additional reasons for the growth of the tumor of the testes may be considered are: constitutional features (thin, tall men are more susceptible), race (Europeans get sick 5 times more often than Africans or Asians).
The type of cell composition and shape of the lesion testicular cancer is divided into two groups:
- Seminary type (pharmingen) – presented slowly progressive painless formations in the tissues of the testicle. Develops a testicular cancer of epithelial tissue. Metastases are usually absent.
- Resumenanny type (germ cell) is characterized by tumors, metastases that spread to close and distant organs. Such tumors formed from the main tissue.
One of the most malignant is embryonal carcinoma. Embryonic type of cancer damage very quickly metastasizes. Predictions of such lesions is often poor. Embryonal carcinoma requires treatment by surgical removal of the tumor and chemotherapy.
Symptoms of cancerous lesions of the testicles
The clinical picture of pathology are symptoms of local and General character, and also evidence thatthe body is tumor metastasis.
The initial symptoms when the diagnosis of "testicular cancer" appear in the form of a painless spot seals in the tissues. Diagnosis of early stages of the disease dependent on the care of the patient and the timeliness of his appeal to the clinic. 25% of patients may experience pain in the tissues of the scrotum or testicles. Probably also the presence of dull pain or heaviness in the stomach.
The first symptoms are sometimes identical to the clinic of acute orhiepididimita. Testicular cancer after some time can manifest in the form of asymmetry, increasing the size and swelling of the scrotum.
Subsequent symptoms depend on the presence and localization of metastatic lesions:
- Compression or squashing of the nerve roots due to the increase in size of the retroperitoneal groups of lymph nodes leads to the development of severe pain in the back.
- Compression of the intestine by the same group of lymph nodes can cause intestinal obstruction and typical symptoms. Diagnosis of this complication requires urgent assistance to the patient.
- The blockade system, lymph outflow or the inferior Vena cava leads to the occurrence of lymphedema, swelling in the legs.
- By displacement of the ureter can cause renal failure or hydronephrosis (accumulation of fluid in the capsule of the kidney).
- The presence of secondary foci of malignant lesions of lymph nodes of the mediastinum region (metastases) cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, cough.
- Testicular cancer causes intoxication syndrome, characterized by symptoms such as weakness, loss of appetite, nausea, cachexia (emaciation). The reasons for this is due to the destruction of the tissues of the body and release cancer cells of toxic substances.
Perhaps the emergence of dishormonal disorders in men under the influence of pheomenon forms of cancer. While the boys reveal these symptoms: mutation of voice, often spontaneous erections, hirsutism (hair growth), macroanatomy, gynecomastia. Mature individuals hormone-dependent testicular cancer is manifested by impotence, low libido, feminization.
Timely and correct diagnosis of malignant disease can ensure successful and most effective treatment of cancer lesions of the male body.
For diagnosis are applied:
- An objective examination of the patient, including diagnosis (feeling) of the scrotum.
- Laboratory diagnosis: the level of concentration in the blood tumor markers allows to monitor the treatment and predict the outcome of the disease.
- Diagnostics by means of the diaphanoscope – raying scrotum directed light beam. If scrotum little skipslight, this suggests that diagnosed testicular cancer in men.
- X-ray diagnostics of the thorax, which is used to determine in the male body metastases to other organs.
- Ultrasound diagnostics of small pelvis, the scrotum, which is also used to identify metastases.
- A bone scan of the skeleton.
- Computer-aided diagnosis (CT) of the thoracic and abdominal cavities, which allows to detect metastases.
Correct and complete diagnosis allows to eliminate possible causes, choose the most optimal methods of treatment, to provide the best possible support to the patient. The main methods of treatment are presented as follows:
- Arhitekturnomu – surgical removal of the testicle along the spermatic cord.
- Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection – surgical excision of the group of regional lymph nodes of the abdomen.
- Treatment with ionizing radiation.
- Treatment of chemotherapy to slow down the development of cancer cells and destroy them.
Treatment with chemotherapy and radiation is highly effective due to increased sensitivity to them tissues of malignant tumors of the testis. The main objective of the treatment of this disease is to eliminate symptoms and prolong the patient's life.
Treatment of tumors of a testicle can cause cancer in another. Complete removal of the testes (left and right) leads to infertility.
The occurrence of secondary lesions in other organs contributes to the violation of their functions and can cause additional symptoms (liver, lungs, kidneys, brain, lymph nodes). Likely also fatal. With the development of a malignant lesion of the testis may be involved in the process of appendage formation of such diseases as cancer of the epididymis.
- Independent probing of the testicles in warm conditions (preferably after bathing), alternately left and right.
- Regular preventive examination by urologist at least 1 times throughout the year that guarantees the detection of early changes in the structure of the sexual glands of men. Timely diagnosis of the disease increases the chances of recovery significantly.
- Surgical treatment by neomusaria the testicles into the scrotum (cryptorchidism), preferably before age three, reducing the risk of developing cancer.
- Warning possible injury to your testicles and exposure to radiation.
- Timely treatment of diseases of the reproductive system of males of nonneoplastic origin.
- Rational and properly balanced diet.
- The maximum possible elimination of the causesthe cancer of this localization.
- Elimination of bad habits.
- Regular, orderly sexual life men.
Testicular cancer – a very rare disease of tumor nature. However, every man should be aware of this pathology in order to identify violations and initiate the necessary treatment.