The location of the bladder in men, its anatomy and characteristics of the disease
Bladder infection in medicine is called unpaired organ that performs the function of collection and elimination of urine produced by the kidneys. The bladder in men, is located in the lower part of the abdomen between the pubic symphysis and the rectum, is also behind this organ are seminal vesicles and prostate.
The volume of the bladder depends on the amount of urine in it. According to some, the amount of urine in the bladder can be about a liter. Reaching the maximum filling, the bladder sends signals to urinate. This body has three openings. Two holes formed by the confluence of the ureters, and one outlet to the urethra.
Like all organs and systems of the human bladder in men prone to various diseases. All these pathologies can be divided into:
- Congenital anomalies of development.
- Nonspecific inflammatory lesions.
- Specific inflammatory processes.
- Calculous disease.
- Neoplastic lesions (polyp, papilloma, carcinoma, etc.).
- Neurogenic disease.
A group of these pathologies involve congenital disorders of the structure or functions of the bladder. These anomalies are developing in the womb. Scientists have identified risk factors that can affect the fetus and lead to abnormalities. These factors are:
- It's a genetic disorder.
- An infectious disease that underwent a woman during pregnancy. The most dangerous diseases that lead to violations of fetal development, I think rubella and syphilis.
- The harmful effects of the environment, including professional.
- Drugs and alcohol.
All these factors lead to the formation of various pathologies. These include: bladder extrophy, contracture of the neck of urachus anomalies, agenesis, doubling and diverticula. Or that other pathology has its significant differences and affect the daily lives of men, if not promptly treatment is started.
|№ p/p||Disease||Distinctive features|
|1||Bladder extrophy||Complete or partial absence of the anterior abdominal wall of the abdomen and anterior wall of the bladder. In some cases, the bladder is on the outside. Urine accumulates in the bladder, and is poured out through the abnormal opening. The penis of the future men is urethra, penis and urethra split. To get rid of this pathology is possible only surgically.|
Define complete and incomplete doubling of the bladder:
Complete duplication. With the development of this pathology has two urinary bladder, each of whichoffers a single ureter. Also each organ has its the urethra and the cervix. With incomplete doubling of the bladder neck and urethra – common. The treatment of this pathology only operative.
Diverticula in men are a protrusion of the bladder wall. They have an appearance similar to that bag. The volume and their size is different. Such protrusions are generally arranged on the rear or side wall of the bladder.
In these "bags" accumulates a certain volume of urine, it is stagnation, which triggers the further development of pyelonephritis, cystitis and stone formation. Is determined by the existence of the diverticulum by ultrasound or cystoscopy. Treatment – operative.
|4||Agenesis of the||The complete absence of the bladder. Often this anomaly is combined with other congenital defects. This disease is incompatible with life, and the outcome is usually lethal.|
|5||Contracture of the neck||Excessive formation of fibrous tissue in the neck of the bladder. The symptoms depend on the intensity of the formation of fibrosis. With a slight development of connective tissue there are small difficulties with the outflow of urine. Progressive disease may be complicated by isoria, reflux, the accession of infectious factor and renal disease in the form of hydronephrosis. Treat pathology incision of the stricture.|
Anomalies of development:
Umbilical fistula. Urachus does not grow in the area of the navel. Fraught with the accession of infection.
Vesico-umbilical fistula. This pathology is characterized by complete nezareatmene of urachus. Urine through the navel.
Such diseases are first trying to treat it conservatively. If no dynamics is possible and surgery.
Bladder infection in men occurs much less frequently than women, and usually the most common as related to illness in chronic inflammatory lesions of neighboring organs and systems. Cystitis can be infectious and non-infectious etiology. Noninfectious cystitis appear in cases when the man has got a cold in the pelvic area or there was a chemical or medicinal effect on the bladder.
Noninfectious cystitis also occurs as a result of injury or when the cause of irritation of the bladder walls have become stones. The cause of the inflammatory process in the bladder is a polyp, papilloma, cyst. In addition, the condition of the bladder may also affect BPH. Cause inflammation can also set cystostomy, catheter and other medical instruments. Infectiouscystitis appear when you attach an infectious agent. Depending on the flora, causing inflammation, cystitis divided into specific and nonspecific.
Nonspecific inflammation implies a pathological process, caused by opportunistic flora. This flora is from men, it becomes pathogenic only under certain conditions. It consists of a Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and other microorganisms. This microflora consists of the natural "residents" of the lower intestine and genitals, but when exposed to certain factors triggered the inflammatory process. This can happen if:
- The man has got a cold in the bladder.
- Not complied with the rules of personal hygiene.
- There are congestion in the pelvic area.
- The bladder in men is not emptied in a timely manner.
- If you have other inflammatory lesions of the genitourinary system men.
- There is disease of the bladder (tumor, stones, foreign body, polyp, papilloma, and others).
- Conducted medical manipulations (set cystostomy, instillation, cystoscopy, biopsy, etc.).
- There are stricture, polyp or other lesions of the urethra.
Specific cystitis caused by hitting the bladder in men is a different kind of infection. A distinctive feature of this infection is that it strikes parallel to the other organs and systems. Specific inflammations are tubercular, syphilitic, gonorrheal, Trichomonas, chlamydiosis and others.
The main symptoms of urinary tract infections in men are a common, difficult and painful urination, a violation of the General condition accompanied by fever, chills. There is a change in urine composition. Chronic inflammatory process has mild symptoms, but laboratory tests of urine indicates cystitis.
Before you start treatment, the urologist will appoint a number of studies. Laboratory examination of urine and blood as well as tests for STDs is performed ultrasound of the kidneys and bladder. Only after the examination, the doctor will prescribe drugs that can be used not only in hospital but also at home. If the treatment prescribed is wrong or that the men are careless about a physician, the acute course of inflammation takes the chronic form. Chronic cystitis is treatable with difficulty, and often gives complications:
- Hemorrhagic cystitis.
- Interstitial inflammation.
- Damage to the kidneys.
- Gangrenous cystitis.
- Break the wall of the organ.
- Parasitic and other diseases.
This disease in men is characterized by formation of stones in the bladder and kidneys. Stones canto be of different sizes from the diameter of a grain of sand to 12 inches in diameter. The formation of stones is possible in the presence of predisposing factors:
- Eating habits – excessive consumption of acidic and spicy dishes.
- Endocrine diseases.
- Bad composition of the water.
- Of metabolic disorders.
- Osteomyelitis or osteoporosis.
- Infectious diseases.
- Toxic injury.
- Diseases of the kidneys and other pelvic organs.
Stones in the bladder are not always appearance of blood in the urine, but the pain in the abdomen. It appears with movement or urination. The stones can cause pain at sharp movements, walking, bending and vibration.
Sometimes in the process of urinating stones can move and block the urinary tract, then the urine volume increases. but urination does not occur. But as soon as the man will change the position of the body, urination is restored. Against the background of these symptoms can develop a fever. The location of the bladder stones affects symptoms and localization of pain.
To diagnose the disease the doctor will prescribe blood and urine tests, ultrasound of the urinary tract. Depending on the results of the tests will be chosen the appropriate treatment. If conservative methods do not give results, prescribe surgery.
Such violations in the bladder cause of the nerve pathways or centers that are responsible for the functions of this body. The basic nature of the disease is manifested dysfunction of the accumulation or evacuation of urine. Distinguish 2 forms of pathology: hyperactive and hypoactive bladder.
The main symptoms of this pathology are characterized by a frequent urge to urinate even when the accumulated volume of urine is very small. The urges are so strong that there is a incontinence. This condition appears not only in daytime but also at night. Overactive bladder can cause insomnia, depression, and complicated by inflammatory processes.
Lowered bladder tone will indicate the absence of normal urination. Urine accumulates a huge amount, and its volume can exceed 1500 ml. This pathology can lead to serious consequences. Because of the stagnation of urine the stones are formed, and the contact of the contents of the bladder back into the ureters leading to kidney damage. At the time of treatment of this pathology can be installed cystostomy to drain urine.
Causes of pathology
Hyperactive and hypoactive bladder is a fairly common pathology and are found not only in children but also in adultsmen. And if in childhood this anomaly is due to the imperfection of the nervous system, for the emergence of neurogenic disorders need other reasons. Although there are many, the main ones I think:
- Brain disease (Parkinson's, cancer, stroke, trauma).
- The spinal cord lesions (cancer, hernia, etc.).
- Disorders in the peripheral nervous system.
Treatment of neurogenic bladder long and complex. A large number of diagnostics (laboratory, ultrasound, CT, MRI and others) to ascertain the causes of the disease. For the full therapy will need the attention of many specialists, as the consequences of neglect of the pathology can be quite severe and the treatment later may not help.
Neoplastic lesions represent pathological changes of epithelial cells, which changes their number and structure. A benign tumor has a local character, and often in such case diagnosed papilloma or a polyp. The malignancy of the tumor (Oncology) is characterized by lesions of the cells of the entire body. To provoke the occurrence of bladder tumors can:
- Occupational hazards.
- Bad habits.
- Chronic inflammatory processes in the bladder.
- Virus papillomatosis.
- Radiation treatment used for the treatment of cancer of nearby organs.
Signs of tumors
Benign tumors may long time not manifest itself. But all the same polyp and papilloma can give yourself with hematuria and urination disorder. If a polyp or papilloma located in close proximity to the ureter or urethra, it can lead to the overlap of the lumen and cause a violation of the outflow of urine. Polyp and papilloma have the ability to malignancy, that is, when exposed to certain factors develops cancer.
Cancer at first does not appear. Only the appearance is enough of a running process reveals itself with various symptoms. Most often, symptoms of cancer there are:
- The appearance of blood in the urine.
- Discomfort when urinating.
- Pain in lower abdomen radiating to groin.
Symptoms of carcinoma bladder similar signs of inflammation. Therefore, accurate diagnosis is necessary to immediately consult a doctor. Specialist to determine, is it a polyp or carcinoma, ‒ appoint to various studies (ultrasound, biopsy, blood and urine and others) and based on the results, will prescribe treatment. Carcinoma (cancer) is a life-threatening disease, because timely access to a doctor increases the chance of cure.
Diseasebladder their appearances are very similar, especially at first (for example, polyp, and cancer), and proper differential diagnosis may spend only a doctor. It is not necessary in the event of a variety of complaints to self-medicate, and you should seek help from a specialist. Only in this case, the prognosis can be positive.