Details about the causes, symptoms and treatment of penile cancer
Penile cancer – a rare cancer. Found on average less than 1 case per 100,000 men. Disseminated cancer of the penis in the world unevenly. The reasons for its development is associated with poor hygienic maintenance, early sexual life, frequent change of sexual partner, phimosis. 8 times more likely to cancer of the penis is found in India, in 5 times less common among Muslims, Jews, and other peoples who practice circumcision of boys early childhood.
Why is there
Penile cancer – a tumor composed of cells of the skin of the foreskin, the mucous membrane of the head. Each cell of the body is composed of the nucleus the genes responsible for the stimulation of cell growth (proanagen) and preventing its uncontrolled growth (antioncogenes). Cancer develops when there is stimulation of proanagen risk factors or inhibition of antioncogenes.
The exact causes of such changes genetic structure of cells is still unknown. The altered cell has the properties typical of tumor growth. It is not similar in structure, functions in progenitor cells, of which happened.
Cancer process grows rather than moves the fabric during its growth, metastasizes to lymph nodes, and other organs. Metastasis is the spread through the blood or lymph of individual cancer cells, which become the source of development of tumor growth.
Believe that penile cancer occurs most often (has reason) in some States. They cause prolonged skin irritation. This:
- the presence of chronic sexually transmitted infections;
- frequent inflammation of the penis (for example, balanoposthitis);
- the presence of blood men of human papillomavirus 16-th, 18-th types;
- receiving psoralen;
- UV irradiation of the penis;
These factors activate proanagen, inhibit antioncogene cells.
How to understand what it is
Early signs of the disease can detect male in daily hygienic procedures of the skin of the perineum. Developing cancer is a constant presence of spots on the head or the skin of the penis. Trouble is, the spot brings, therefore, his presence pay little attention.
So explain to men the reasons for the late appeal. Further, the spot may turn into a long-term unhealed ulcer, or warty growth, bringing inconvenience, and pain. These symptoms cancer of the penis is in the later stages of development when the diagnostic detects an increase in inguinal lymph nodes.
Partialresection of the penis, when removed cancers with the control edge of the resection (complete removal of malignant tissue) gives less stable results. Treatment, the outcome in this case depends on the skill of the surgeon, a little bit of luck. In 80% of cases with a favorable combination of these factors of relapse does not occur within the first 2 years when the emergence of new tumors is particularly high.
This surgery to preserve the penis is considered the most appropriate in the absence of metastases in other organs. Men after this operation, more than 60 % of the cases retain sexual activity, the ability to have children, and experience less psychological discomfort. Treatment using such options transactions involves the removal of lymph nodes of inguinal region as the cause of the spread of cancer process in the first place.
If there are metastases in the internal organs, the treatment combines several methods. Use local and General effects on the body. As a rule, it is:
- partial resection of the penis;
- radiation therapy.
It is believed that the treatment has a good result, if cancer symptoms do not progress within 2 years. This result is observed infrequently.
Observation after surgery includes a daily inspection of the male penis. This allows you to identify early symptoms of cancer recurrence, to conduct radical surgery. Thereby saved the man's life.
Every 3 months the patient visits a doctor, is examined to detect possible metastases. After 2 years of observation doctor's occur every six months for 5 years. Causes of relapse becomes unlikely. Then remains only the self-monitoring men for their health, the skin of the penis.
Penile cancer is rare, but knowing about its existence, its symptoms male is important in order to consult a doctor for any conditions with similar manifestations. Early treatment in this case will save his life, full sexual activity.