All about bladder cancer in men, its causes, symptoms and treatment
Bladder cancer is one of the most common in urology cancer. Among men is found three times more often than women. The average patient age is 60 years, and over the years the risk of disease increases. In the course of this disease affects the bladder wall: a pathological change in the mucosa cells of the body. Unlike benign process to cancer characterized by the germination in the thickness of the walls, and then beyond them, spread throughout the body (metastasis).
The most common form in men and women is considered to be transitional cell (90% of all cases). This type of cancer is divided into two large groups: superficial and infiltrada of the tumor, depending on the depth of penetration of the pathological process. Let us consider the causes of bladder cancer, its symptoms and treatment.
Why is there disease?
The following are the major causes of the cancer process:
- Exposure to aromatic amines. Organic compounds, which can be faced by people working in the chemical or metallurgical industries. Also at risk are the workers of printing houses, dry cleaners.
- Smoking. In men who have this addiction, cancer occurs 6 times more often.
- Chronic cystitis, urolithiasis.
- The installation of a permanent urinary catheter.
- Schistosomiasis. The pathogen inhabits in fresh water, respectively, to get sick are those who bathe in such waters.
For men, entering at risk and affected by these factors, it's important to undergo regular screening with the aim of eliminating the cancer process, to closely monitor health, to try to eliminate the causes of disease, to pay attention to warning signs.
Stage of development of the disease
Cancer of the bladder over time progresses, deeper penetrating into the wall of an organ:
- 0 stage. At this stage the cancer cells are only found in the bladder, but the penetration of the body wall is not observed. If at this stage would be timely diagnosis connected treatment, eliminate the reasons for a high probability to get rid of the terrible disease.
- Stage 1. The tumor affects the wall of the body, but has not yet reached the muscle layer. Symptoms are absent or practically do not disturb the person. At this stage, the chance of surviving cancer is also high.
- Stage 2. Neoplastic process extends tothe muscle layer, but in increments. Adequate treatment can help, but the chances of full recovery are significantly reduced (50-60 %).
- Stage 3. The tumor has invaded through the wall and affects surrounding adipose tissue, but has reached nearby lymph nodes. Only 20% of cases with proper treatment fails to stop cancer.
- Stage 4. The affected lymph nodes there are metastases in other organs. The symptoms of the disease are increasingly being felt. At this stage a cure can be considered a miracle. As a rule, even in the appointment of intensive treatment is less than 20 % of patients will live another 5 years.
The symptoms and diagnosis
Cancer is a very insidious disease. In the early stages, when it can be eradicated, it is hidden, then cleverly disguised as other less dangerous diseases. Most men just don't pay attention to the first symptoms.
There are the following symptoms, which may indicate bladder cancer:
- The appearance of blood in urine (hematuria).
- Pain when urinating, frequent urge.
- Pain in the abdomen.
These symptoms cannot be considered specific for bladder cancer, accurate diagnosis can be made only after full diagnostics will be carried out. But if there were such warning signs, then there are serious reasons for a visit to the urologist.
Methods of identifying diseases
The doctor notes the complaints from the patient, assesses how the symptoms are expressed, the influence of the negative factors mentioned above, and assigns conducting research and analysis to give a clearer picture. In particular, this:
- Biochemical blood analysis, urine analysis. Urine is also examined for the presence of cancer cells and tumor markers.
- Ultrasound, x-ray examination of the bladder.
- Computed tomography using contrast. A more informative method than ultrasound. Allows you to define the size and location of tumors.
- The cystoscopy. Visual examination of the bladder through the urethra allows not only to see the tumor, but also to take a piece of tissue for closer examination.
Diagnosis, combined with treatment of the cancer is transurethral biopsy. The procedure gives you the opportunity to consider in detail the bladder, as well as detecting tumors to remove them using a special electrical loop. With this manipulation it is possible to take tissue for histological examination. The results of the study will allow the physician to establish the degree of damage, the depth of penetration of the tumor into the bladder wall.
Treatment of the disease
If we are talking about the early stages of disease (stage 0-1),is the following treatment:
- Conservative treatment (use of drugs).
Method is used intravesical immunotherapy with BCG). It involves the introduction of the BCG vaccine into the bladder, which supports the immune system in the fight against cancer and kills the cancer cells. The method has a high efficiency. Approximately 70% of cases relapse after treatment does not occur within 5 years.
Another method is intravesical chemotherapy: anticancer drugs are injected into the bladder through the urethra.
Is mainly applied in the method of transurethral resection of the tumor. It is minimally invasive, involves the introduction of instruments and the removal of tumors through the urethra. In the case of extensive lesions of the urinary bladder resort to radical cystectomy (bladder removed).
Treatment in the later stages
2-3 stages cystectomy is already mandatory. As a rule, together with the bladder removed, nearby organs of the pelvis, particularly the prostate, can be removed and lymph nodes. After the operation is prescribed a course of chemotherapy to prevent recurrence.
At the last 4 stage of the cancer surgery already gives such a positive effect. The operation is performed, but rather to slow down the process or eliminate complications that were the result of the development of oncological process. Also at this stage it is used the treatment of radio - and chemotherapy to suppress metastasis, which appeared in other organs and tissues (lungs, bones, liver, etc.)
In the postoperative period to prevent recurrence receive chemotherapy (administration of anticancer agents intravesical). Also used intravesical immunotherapy with BCG). The disease will manifest again or not, largely depends on at what stage was diagnosed with cancer and prescribed treatment.
How to protect yourself?
Universal medicines, which is 100% would protect men from the development of the cancer process in the bladder, alas, no. All you really do is eliminate the causes of guidance:
- Possible to leave work in hazardous industries and activities that involve interaction with dyes containing aromatic amines.
- Quit Smoking, start a healthy lifestyle.
- To prevent the emergence of inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system.
- With care to swim in fresh water is the risk of schistosomiasis.
- Regular visits to the urologist, timely diagnosis, especially if there are alarming symptoms.
Modern medicine has a hugeopportunities: early diagnosis and effective treatment of cancer, including bladder cancer. Noticed symptoms, visit a doctor who will prescribe a comprehensive examination and treatment, can prolong human life for decades, to rid this horrible disease. But only need to be a little more attentive to themselves and their loved ones. I hope the material presented was useful for You. Be healthy!