Briefly about the structure of the male urogenital systems, major diseases and their treatment
Of the genitourinary system (IPS) men consists of two major subsystems – bladder, which is the formation and excretion of urine, and sexual responsible for reproductive function. In fact, the urogenital system can be considered as a separate body, the normal functioning of which is extremely important in the livelihood of the human body as a whole. It is susceptible to infection, where in the beginning of the process always inflammation.
As with any complex system, the IPU is characterized by the development of a number of diseases that have a direct or indirect impact on the overall performance of the whole organism. The article discusses some of the most common diseases of the genitourinary system in men, with a brief description of diagnosis and treatment.
The basics of the anatomical structure
The structure of the urinary or urogenital system of men is represented by the system of urine formation, the urinary organs and genital tract. Mocheobrazovanie structures are the kidneys, the main organ of filtration of blood plasma from the products of vital activity of organism. The urine from the kidneys to the continuous drip stream flows down the ureters into the bladder where it is stored before urination. Urine output from the bladder is carried out through its neck that connects to the urethra or the urethra. In men the urethra passes in the form of a pipe, almost through the whole length of the penis. Because direct contact with the environment in the urethra often causes inflammation.
Anatomy of the kidney and genitourinary system very complicated – in the parenchyma of these organs are a number of intertwined blood vessels, the structure of which forms the glomeruli, where it is the direct filtration of blood plasma. Formed in glomerular system urine flows through thin tubules from around the body into the renal pelvis, which ends the ureter. Are kidney in the lumbar of the back part of the abdominal cavity. This on pairs and supports a single operation – human life is possible in the presence of one kidney.
In addition to the filtration task, the kidneys function as glands that produce the hormones required for the processes of hematopoiesis and regulation of blood pressure. Inflammation of the kidneys, or nephritis, is one of the most serious diseases.
The structure of the ureters presented a long, narrow bone extending from each kidney and join the upper part of the bladder. The paired organs, make up part of the genitourinary system. The bladder hastriangular shape with the apex at the bottom, located where the neck and the sphincter, opening the urine exit in only one direction – into the urethra. The bladder is part of urinary system. Its characteristic feature ‒ the ability to strong tension in the result of the gradual accumulation of urine. This is because the structure of its walls, which represent smooth muscle fibers. Anatomy muscle of the bladder is constructed so that in the absence of urine the body is contracted, and decreases to very small sizes, and when filled, stretched. Inflammation of the bladder is called cystitis.
The urethra or the urethra in men, presented a very narrow tube, which also has your muscle fibers, which is stretched during erection. The urethra also serves as samalionis duct in the process of ejaculation – ejaculation. Inflammation of the urethra is called urethritis.
Almost all education authorities and excretion of urine inside is lined with mucosa that produces mucus in moderation. The main function of mucous secret – protection of lower layers on the bladder from the aggressive environment. It is worth noting that many diseases, especially infections start developing in the lining of the genitourinary system.
The reproductive or genital system of the male is also represented by several agencies. The main objective of this system is to develop male sex cells – sperm and delivering them in the genital system of the woman to continue the kind of. To reproductive organs in men include:
- Testes – organs that produce sperm. Inflammation of testes called orchitis. The structure of the testes involves the development of many branches.
- The appendages of the testes, the main role of which consists in accumulation of sperm cells for their subsequent maturation and subsequent promotion. Organs anatomically represented by a long narrow stream twisted into a spiral. Inflammation of the appendages of the testes called epididymitis.
- Seminiferous cords. Connect epididymis of testis to the urethra.
- Penis – an organ capable of altering their physical proportions. The increase in the size of the penis or erection is possible due to the presence of cavernous bodies in his column. When filling the cavernous body, like a sponge, with blood under high pressure there is an increase in body as a whole. In the center of the penis forms the channel of the urethra to ensure the delivery of sperm cells in the reproductive system of women.
A large part of the male reproductive subsystem as part of the urogenital outside the abdominal cavity. The only exception is the prostateiron or prostate, which is located directly under the bladder. The structure of the prostate provides a body of irregular shape, whose role is to develop a special fluid, which precedes the release of sperm. Seminal fluid AIDS in pre-cleaning the urethra from infection and create a favorable nutritive environment for the sperm cells at the time they move through the urethra. Inflammation of the prostate gland is called prostatitis.
Diseases of the genitourinary system
As already mentioned, the kidneys are complex, a vital mechanism for performing a is not interchangeable with other bodies and systems function. Like any complex organs, kidneys are exposed to a number of pathological conditions and diseases, including infections, that sometimes fundamentally violates their activities:
- Kidney urolithiasis, or nephrolithiasis. The disease is non-contagious in nature and occurs, as a rule, without the participation of the infection. Scheme of course of disease is characterized by the formation of solid structures in the renal areas of the genitourinary system, directly in contact with urine – capsule-tubular system and pelvis. The nature of urinary stones and sand might be different, but their formation is always an excessive amount in the urine of calcium and uric acid. Diagnosis of urolithiasis is carried out using ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and x-ray. Treatment is aimed at expelling the stones from the urine during urination. Large stones are subject to surgical methods of crushing. The ultrasound clearly visible a stone, the base of which is calcium. Then there are certain symptoms, including severe pain, worse when urinating.
- Pyelonephritis – a kidney inflammation of bacterial etiology. Bacteria enter the kidney from the blood or from the bladder, where there is already progress the infection. Scheme of the disease is fairly typical. Diagnosis of disease is based on the evaluation sociopathic renal function, and laboratory studies of urine and blood. Treatment – antibiotic therapy and palliative support. Often the basis of the etiology of disease ‒ the flu.
- Hydronephrosis. The symptoms of the disease are the violation of the outflow of urine from the renal calyx and pelvis. The main symptoms ‒ pain and anuria. As a rule, the disease is caused by a blockage of the ureter stone or cancer. Well hydronephrosis diagnosed by ultrasound and CT. Treatment of this area of the urinary system is to eliminate the anomaly, which perhaps the use of an open surgery.
- Kidney failure – chronic kidney disease is caused by various reasons. The complex structure leads to the emergence of the masspathological conditions in the kidneys. The disease is more common in gout, diabetes, poisoning, drugs, or external poisons. Symptoms of renal failure depend on the specific reason, but always appear in the form of violations of the formation of urine. Possible renal failure due to infection. Treatment is mainly symptomatic.
- Glomerulonephritis – inflammation of the area of the tubules and glomeruli of the kidneys, often the cause of infection. A characteristic feature of the disease is long and complex treatment, lasts for years. The symptoms of the disease are expressed occasionally in the form of pain, blood in the urine and disturbances of urine formation. The common cold is one of the reasons for the development of glomerulonephritis.
Diseases of the organs of reproduction
This type of diseases of the genitourinary system are always characterized by impaired reproductive function in males or their complete loss. To those diseases most often encountered in urological and andrological practice, include:
- Cysts of the appendages of the testes, or spermatocele often encountered disease among patients older than 40 years. The essence of the disease consists in the formation of cavities filled with fluid during semennikova appendages with them outside. The symptoms are hidden. Effective method of diagnosis is ultrasound examination. Treatment usually is not required, the disease does not prejudice reproductive function, nor the body as a whole.
- Epididymoorchitis – inflammatory disease arising from the pathological effects of infection. Characterized by lesions of the appendages seed with the involvement of the structure of the testis. Often the cause of the disease is getting a cold. The symptoms of the disease is quite characteristic swelling of the scrotum on the affected side and severe pain. The diagnosis of epididymoorchitis placed on the basis of bacteriologic analysis of urine. Ultrasound examination is ineffective. Treatment – antibiotic therapy, which can be adjusted after the results of bacteriological studies.
- Torsion of the testis is the disease most often occurs in adolescence, is characterized by the twisting of the spermatic cord, which leads to the constriction of blood vessels supplying the testis. The symptoms of the disease include sudden manifestation of pain in one of testicles, groin, lower abdomen, redness and soreness of the affected area. Diagnosis is made using ultrasound. Treatment is surgical, based on the unwinding of the spermatic cord and securing the testicle for possible recurrence.
- Testis cancer is a common cancer of men aged 20 to 40 years. Diagnosis with ultrasound is used in the later stages, when the tumor will bevisible. For diagnosis in the early stages of the disease used biopsy. The symptoms reflect the chronic nature of the flow – the presence of a hard painless swelling on the affected side, change in size of the testis, spontaneous sharp pain in the scrotum. Treatment usually is surgical removal of the testicles.
- Varicocele – varicose veins, diverting blood from the testis. The symptoms of the disease sufficiently greased, possible episodic paroxysmal pain in the affected testis. Examination, ultrasound, and count the number of sperm cells (when varicocele is reduced their production and, therefore, reduces the number). The ultrasound clearly visible enlarged and crowded veins. Treatment and invasive surgery, which is based on the removal of the testes that is carried out in severe cases.
It should be noted that the presented is not a complete list of possible pathologies of the urogenital system, affecting the organs of the male genitourinary system. You need to remember: when any observed deviations in the functionality of the genitourinary system or the appearance of pain, you must immediately go to the urologist, are particularly difficult any infection. Most diseases are easily treatable in the early stages and easily diagnosed through an ultrasound.